The Multimode Fiber Evolution

There have been many advancements in fiber optical components and standard multimode fiber over the years. The ISO 11801 standard provides the following system of classification for multimode fibers. The system is based on the bandwidth of various fibers and classifies them as either OM1, OM2, OM3 or OM4.

OM1 Fiber

62.5 um fiber introduced. This fiber had a larger core than the 50 um fiber that it replaced, enabling more of the light from an LED to be injected into the fiber’s core. 62.5 multimode fiber was able transmit over 2 km campuses at 10 Mb/s. Also, the new fiber was easier to install due to its higher numerical aperture.

OM2 Fiber

As data rates increased, 62.5 fiber could not keep pace due to its lower bandwidth at the 850 nm wavelength. In 1995 the new 100 Mb/s Fast Ethernet standard advocated the use of LEDs operating at 1300 nm wavelength which resulted in less attenuation. As a result, 50 um fiber was reintroduced, providing up to ten times the bandwidth of 62.5 um fiber. The newer 1 Gb/s and 10Gb/s transmitters used smaller spot-size lasers, which eliminated the issue relating to LED power coupling losses that was previously associated with 50um fiber.

fiber optical components

OM3 Fiber

Laser optimized 50μm fiber was introduced as a cost-effective solution for short-range applications that had to support 1Gb/s or multi-gigabit speeds. OM 3 fiber also offered significant cost savings in terms of electronics when upgrading networks to higher speeds. OM3 became the preferred multimode fiber for LANs, SANs, as well as data center interconnects and access applications.

OM4 Fiber

This is 50μm fiber similar to OM 3 but operating a higher bandwidth. OM 4 is cost effective in that savings can be achieved by using 850 nm VCSELs with long building backbones and medium size campus backbones. Supports 10 Gb/s Ethernet, Fibre Channel, and OIF applications over distances up to 550 meters.

Night Vision Equipment and Their Uses

Thanks to technology, people today can live their lives more easily. Developments associated with electricity and the internet has completely changed life and we can now do things faster than there before. Technology has also helped other sectors such as the military such that warfare today is tactical and technological. Most important has been advances that have been made in the war against crime, especially when you have it in mind that most criminal activity occurs under the cover of darkness. A long time ago police fought crime using flash lights but this was not so effective; the development of the night vision scope has helped the police officers to see more clearly in darkness because it gives them an edge against the bad guys.

night vision equipment

Most people can’t understand how night vision scopes work. Your eyes have natural night vision but as usual, you need to stay in the dark for brief moments before your eyes get acclimatized. You only need to be in a dark room for a few seconds before things start becoming clearer even in area with very little light. Night vision scopes work in an almost similar way, with the advantage being that they have technology that amplifies the little light so that you can see more clearly. You actually don’t see through a night vision scope, goggles or binoculars but through a phosphor screen that is in front of you; this can be compared to a TV inside your night vision device.

There are other night vision devices that don’t need light intensifiers; this other kinds of devices work through the use of thermal imaging. Thermal imaging appears to be more sophisticated that the light intensifier technology when it comes to night vision. The technology works by capturing any heat that is emitted by objects. Human bodies or those of animals will emit more light than stones and other inanimate objects, this makes it possible for you to distinguish human beings or animals because they create a more intensified white or red color on the infrared based night vision equipment.

What is clear is that these two types of night vision devices are effective in assisting people to walk easily during dark hours or when there is very little light. In most cases, the police and the military use night vision devices in their line of duty as an essential tool. The rest of the population has also benefited from the development of night vision technology especially those who love to go game hunting or watching birds and wildlife before the sun rises. When compared to other optical devices, night vision may look like they are more expensive but when you look at the benefits; it is usually worth every dime you will pay.

Connect Your Smartphone With Your PC

As more and more people started to use smartphones, the need to connect a smartphone with the PC has risen. The photos taken with the smartphone quickly took up all the storage space so it was necessary to transfer these photos to a PC quickly. On the other side, large music databases stored on the PC had to be transferred to the phone somehow.

We could do all this with a USB cable, but still, it was not always possible to have a cable on hand. Plus, that can be a hassle sometimes. And this is how mobile PC suites came to be. A useful software that can connect and sync your smartphone with the PC. You can use a mobile PC suite to transfer files, create backups and do many other things.

mobile pc suites
The connection can be made via Bluetooth or via Wi-Fi. Of course, you can still use a cable, but that’s the slowest possible way of exchanging data between phones and PCs so we’ll just skip that. Bluetooth is a cool way to exchange data, but there is a flaw in this system – your gadgets have to be close to one another. On the other hand, Wi-Fi connection will allow you to exchange files from your PC to your smartphone no matter how far away they are from one another.

And the best thing is, it’s quite easy to install and use this system. If you check out a guide on mobile PC suites, you will see that you need to take only few steps to make this work. And then, no matter  where you are in your home, you can store photos to your PCs hard drive, transfer videos, movies and music to your smartphone, without having to move from your sofa. Convenient, right?

Scanning Old Photos – Digitalize Them At Home

I’ve been going through my old photo albums 2 months ago and I figured out that it would be the right time to digitalize them all. Some of my photos are more than 30 years old and it’s getting harder to preserve them properly. I won’t throw away these old photo albums, but I want to make sure I have a backup on my computer.

My next step was to find a good quality scanner and scan those photos as best as I can. Now, the scanner I have is not of a very high quality and it moves the paper/photo in order to s can it. After I did some research, I found out that I need a flatbed photo scanner. The good thing was, some of these cost only a bit above $100 and the quality they provide is quite good.

But instead of suggesting which flatbed photo scanner for scanning old photos you should buy, it’s best that I talk about some of the features you will need so you can decide on the specific model yourself.

Scanning Old Photos


The first feature you will need to consider is how many dots per inch your scanner can produce. The usual number here is 1200DPI, but you can set the resolution to be lower, if necessary. If you set the higher resolution, the scanner will need more time to complete the work. For regular paper prints, 600 will suffice, but you will need to use a higher resolution for your old photos.


If you are having only a dozen of photos, the speed of your scanner won’t be so important. But if you want to scan hundreds of photos, you want to buy a fast scanner. Check the speed of the model you are interested in – you will find that there is a specific speed for every resolution you want to use. The more scans per minute can be done, the better.

Photo Feeding

There are scanners that allow automatic feeding and you might think that they are the best option since you have hundreds of old photos to scan. But the things is, these scanners have a low resolution – most of them are set to 600DPI. It’s best you avoid these and get a flatbed photo scanner for superb image quality.

flatbed photo scanner for scanning old photos

I hope these advices will help you buy the right scanner so you can preserve and digitalize your old photos. If you want to find out more about digitalizing your old photos, watch this YouTube video –

You won’t have to spend a lot of money and time if you follow through the tips above. So get up and get going, your photos won’t scan on their own!

How To Find Good Task Time Tracker For The Law Firm

There are no firms needing a timesheet software such as law firms. When lawyer bills his client for worked time, every minute counts. But in some cases, an accurate time tracking can be rather an impediment than help. A proper task time tracker needs to have some features that facilitates work and lets attorneys focus only on their duties.

At first we need to say clearly what are the factors of profitable time tracking:

  • using task time tracker regularly and consistently
  • specifying adequate tasks and projects
  • generating detailed reports
  • creating precise invoices


If you are focused on running time tracking correctly and you want to feel it’s benefits in your law firm, you have to choose a right timesheet software. Good time tracker enables you to track time in a very easy way, bill clientes accurately and, thanks to this, create a better relations with them (not to mention the higher revenue for you).

  1. Precise time recording

What people fear the most about timesheet software is a necessity of filling timesheets. People always think that it will disturb them and will not allow them to work as much as they want. This way of seeing is the most correct: in fact filling timesheet can be burdensome and paradoxically still time for your work. Therefore it’s good for you to choose software with automatic time tracking feature. Then all you have to do is just to define keywords corresponding to your tasks and projects. Task tracker will record them itself, automatically recognising what are you working at currently.

  1. Extensive reports

You know well that single tasks are such flexible things. Within one task you probably need to use your computer, do some phonecalls, have a few meetings, use printer, fax and talk to some colleagues from office. Good task time tracker should allow you to see accurately every single activity that makes up your task. Then you can analyze dates, workers, off-line hours and whatever you want.

  1. Accurate Invoices

You want to earn as much as you worked for it, and surely your clients likes to pay exactly same. It makes both sides respect and trust each other. So find the software that generates precise invoices for your clients. Every minutes devoted for your client should be exported to „Invoicing” so you don’t have to worry that numbers will be incorrect.

Digital Clock Widget

If you are looking to dress up your smartphone with something new, you might consider getting a Digital Clock Widget.

digital clock widget

I always look around for new apps on Google Play and digital clocks are among my favorite apps. I constantly download new ones, always looking for the one that will stick to my tablet. And I believe this one is going to stay on my home screen for a while.

There are 15 different clock styles to choose from and each of them is configurable. You can connect them with the apps you use the most since there are 4 shortcuts available from the Smart Tools Bar. Flashlight and App Uninstaller are built in and you can include several different instant messengers.

clock app

I have a Samsung SIII Neo and Asus Memo Pad FHD 10. This app is fully compatible with both devices, plus it looks great. The details are nicely done and you won’t have anything to complain about. Visit and give this app a shot, I’m sure you’re going to keep it on your Android device.

A Review of Modern Point of Sale Technology

Point of sale terminals have come a long way from their humble origins as a manual, typewriter based system. Although replaced by technology from the early 1970’s to today, the same basic principals still exist, to process sales easier, reduce overall workload, and enable better management of purchases at point of sale.

Until around 10 years ago, most terminals resembled the first series of personal computers, similar to the Apple II and Apple III, terminals has a button style keypad built into the main terminal housing, accessories were then added such as a single line digital display for basic entry tracking by staff, a dual line display for confirmation by the customer, a wired receipt printer using paper rolls for proof of purchase and an input for a bar-code scanner. Since around 1990, these terminals also often save a spreadsheet type file which can then be exported into book keeping software such as MYOB. The most recent terminals still operating under this terminal build type, can have additional software such as direct MYOB integration (albeit the MYOB is controlled via a separate computer by management) and EFTPOS integration.

modern point of sale system

Since around 2000, LED and touch screen technology has developed at a rapid rate, as has the ability for GUI based software development to dramatically simplify sales processing for both cashiers and management. Initially extremely expensive, the cost today of these modern systems is now directly comparable to the old style terminal systems. It is expected that within the next 10 years, all business will be operating under a GUI point of sale terminal, as the development of retrofitted terminals utilising modern technology in an old design, is increasing the cost of these systems.

The benefits of using a modern GUI based system are mostly a extremely simple method of processing sales for cashiers, reducing their workload and increasing their ability to handle customer service requirements, inventory control is also often built into these systems, meaning if you are dealing with multiple suppliers, your stock levels and ordering limits can be set, triggering an alert when it is time to re-order from a supplier. This reduces the requirements of regular stock-taking, reduces paperwork and manual tracking, making management a much more simple process.

dot matrix style point of sale printer and pole display

EFTPOS use now exceeds cash in terms of retail sales, with most people reporting carrying around $40 in their wallets, and using this only for emergencies, the definition given of such emergencies, are when they encounter a business that accepts cash only. Modern GUI systems integrate directly with EFTPOS, making upgrading from a cash based sale platform a single set up and use situation. Training may seem immense at first, however most Point of sale systems sales come with staff training, on site set up, and ongoing customer service. It is still possible to run a cash only system, however as more customers begin to directly avoid cash only businesses in favour of EFTPOS banking businesses, it makes sense to move away from a cash only system, both in terms of financial security and increased turnover.

Modern software is also often catered for specific business models, a retail store for example can be catered for with industry specific technology, hospitality can be catered for with kitchen reporting integrated and integration for liquor sales, service and re-ordering separate to that of wholesale food stock. Wholesalers point of sale software can also be catered for as opposed to retail only based systems.

A few things haven’t changed however from the introduction of computer controlled terminals. Many input devices are multi system compatible, for example receipt printers. Electronic receipt printers were mostly dot matrix based, these devices are still available today, in more recent years, the adaptation of thermal printing technology has over taken dot matrix uses for the simple reason that thermal does not require print cartridges. Both types initially used a serial input plug, but USB and Ethernet technology has since overtaken their input structure, even today the majority of point of sale printers still have all three input types at the rear, meaning they can be re-used even when changing between terminal systems. This standardised form reduces overall costs to the industry as a whole, as the same technology can be re-used reducing manufacturing costs, making replacing old technology simple, reducing costs by standardised paper sizes of which 3 main paper roll sizes dominate the industry, and due to this standard wholesale paper supply costs are able to be reduced to bare minimum levels while still producing a profit from the high turn over.

Cash Register Paper rolls

There are benefits in choosing the correct type of printer for your requirements too, dot matrix and thermal printers can be mixed on a single system, depending on the requirements of that specific terminal, you may have an array of terminals or extend terminals into different rooms for printing purposes, such as a point of sale system at the front of a restaurant offering the customers receipt, and an extension running into the kitchen where another printer returns a separate receipt of the customers order for preparation.

In terms of using dot matrix, this technology is superior when it comes to long lasting (more than 120 days) receipts, as this type of printer uses a ink cartridge (which resembles a small cassette) also known as a ink ribbon, the ink is directly transferred to the paper and will not fade away from the original. Dot matrix however also has the option of twin and triplicate ply bond rolls, these paper rolls will accept ink onto the first (white) paper layer, while carbon transferring a copy onto the second (yellow) and / or third (pink) paper underneath. The secondary and third copies are however prone to fading, so only the original is able to last a long period of time, if keeping receipts for purposes such as taxation references and book keeping, dot matrix is often considered as first choice instead of thermal printing.

Thermal printing receipts do not use ink, but instead have paper which reacts to heat, the heat affected sections react in a way that creates a black marking, hence resembling ink being pressed to paper. The downside of this technology is that thermal paper tends to fade within 120 days of first being printed, and often after 12 months has returned back to completely white, so for long term keeping of these receipts, a secondary copy is required via a photocopy or image scanner.

While thermal printing has taken over most applications for customer receipts and kitchen printers due to their low cost operation and non requirements of re-stocking ink, it may not be practical in certain circumstances where making a secondary copy of a receipt is considered a time wasting exercise. Many stores will print off customer and kitchen receipts using thermal, but if a permanent copy is required, also attach a dot matrix printer to make a copy using single ply white paper for retention purposes.

New-age Technologies and Career Growth Opportunities

Education has always gone in step with modern trends and modern technology. It is always necessary for this to happen as science and business change with the technology used by them. Therefore, in order to educate people to be able to achieve new things in science or even do their jobs properly, they need to be educated in a way that allows them to use that new technological advancements. Also, ways in which people learn is also changed by the technology. There are many ways for people to continue their training and education using the Internet or even smartphone apps. Here are some examples on how modern technology helps in job search and career growth.


Online Courses

There are many benefits of online courses for those who seek new careers and want advancement in their old one. One of the most obvious ways to advance your career is to get trained and educated to do better jobs than you have done before. Usually, jobs require a degree or a certificate, but those papers won’t do much if you don’t acquire actual skill. Small business owners don’t really care about how much documents and degrees you can show them but about how much stuff you can actually do. Therefore, you need to take the chance and acquire skills from the vast sea of online courses on different topics. They are so diverse and they are done on many different platforms that it is obvious that it is essential that you need to master the tech people need to keep up with trends. Those trends offer more training opportunities, a lot of them even free of charge, so they are actually offering career growth opportunities.

Smartphone Apps

While many online courses are followed online on people’s tablets and laptops, there are some platforms that even put those smartphones to use. There have been many apps now that are correspondent to some of the web apps which are in service of virtual classrooms. Learning via smartphones is called m-learning. Since smartphones have cameras, speakers and touchscreen keyboards, they have all they need to offer the user the chance to follow different courses online on their smartphones. Moreover, mobile phone apps also can be used for job hunts as some of them have very efficient notification methods when new job opportunities arise.

social networks

Social Networks

Contacts that people made were always the best recommendation in their job search. Reputation that one has used to be among the most important things for the career growth. The principle is the same today, but what has changed is the way people make contacts. This is the era of social networks and they are used to make new business contacts within your field of expertise as well as to find new career opportunities. Networks like LinkedIn are all about business networking and they are the real picture of the course which the business and job hunts are taking. Moreover, some social networks like YouTube allow you to make your online CVs, online cover letters and many more personal and professional presentations for your future employers and business contacts.

It is very important to keep up with the trends in business and technology because one way or another, these two aspects of life are very closely related and they influence each other greatly. With that in mind, you can easily conclude that no personal or professional growth can be obtained without acquiring new knowledge and new skills and technology is all about allowing that to happen in the best and the most convenient way.

The Anatomy of a Successful Social Media Campaign

Billions of people use social networks every day, which makes them one of the best places to advertise your business. This is not only because of the number of their users, but also because on each network people share some data about themselves, which gives a chance to advertisers to target their potential audience much easier. They are also able to configure their marketing campaigns in the way their followers will like them the most. Feedback and interaction with potential customers are another valuable criteria which makes social networks real “Marketing Wonderlands” of today’s world. In this article we tried to summarize some of the best strategies for making your campaign progress.

Target Your Potential Audience

Imagine you run a skate shop and you want to advertise your business with a commercial billboard. Where would you place it, in the heart of your city’s business quarter or in a skate park where a lot of young skaters gather? Situation is similar with social network campaigns. For them to be succesful you need to target people who are interested in buying your product or service. Now when a lot of networks are running their advertising platforms, it is much easier to target your audience, because these platforms offer many targeting options, that go from location, to age, education, interests etc. Interests are the most useful targeting criteria, and platforms like Facebook Ads for example are giving you the option to choose your ads audience with interests that match certain criteria. For your imaginary skater shop ad, these would be interests like: skateboards, Trashin’, Polar Skate Co, Offspring, Jackass etc. Of course you are also able to find your audience for free, by asking your friends to share your page ad in their posts, or by leaving links in various forums and other social network pages. While doing this you also need to care about who is going to see these posts and what kind of message will attract people to follow your page.


Post Only Good Quality Content

Did you watch 47 Ronin? Of course not! This was the biggest box office flop in history of Hollywood. No matter it had a 175 million dollar budget and Keanu Reeves playing the lead role, these slow-paced and non-original revenge stories simply don’t sell anymore. Same goes for the social network campaigns. You can invest a lot of money in advertising, but if you don’t have interesting landing page, you will just waist it. Your page needs to be up to date and it must keep your potential customers interested in what you have to say. For this you will need a good quality content, and I mean loads of it. While writing these posts be carefull on expressions you use. You need to be sure that your followers like what you are saying, be sure you don’t say these things, because they can be easily misinterpreted by your audience. The best bet would be to create some interesting articles, photos or videos, post them on your web site, and then shared that link on your social network page. This way you will promote your web site and your social network page at the same time.

Interact With Your Potential Customers

Do you like talking to answering machines? No? Me neither and that’s because most human beings like to interact. We like to be sure that somebody hears us and understands our problems. When running a social network campaign you need to be at service to your audience 24/7. Whenever somebody asks something you need to answer him/her straight away in terms that person is able to understand. But sometimes it is hard to make your audience to ask something or to make comment to some of the posts on your page. People prefer online interaction to the real thing, but even on social networks they hesitate when they need to stick out from the crowd and tell others what’s on their mind. That’s why you need to write posts that require an answer from your page followers. It is good that all posts contain certain question, or call for interaction. Sometimes you can bribe them a bit by offering some presents for the most creative answer or something like that. Also dont ask them to write a little essay on how they are feeling at the moment, it is better to keep the questions and the potential answers short, because nobody likes to type or read long comments. This way you will engage your audience, and they will consider your page much more relevant and worth following. You will also make them comment some of your posts and by doing that they will present your page to some of their friends or followers and popularity of your page will grow rapidly. Posts like: “We know that you all hate Mondays, but what is your favorite day of the week?” will do wonders for your social network campaign.


Ask Celebrities for Promotion

When Jamie Oliver says that some dish is tasty, you definitely need to try it out. Companies use celebrities for advertising since eternity, and this tactic still works like a charm. Social network campaigns function in the same way, and if person with celebrity status mentions certain page in his/her post, it is definitely going to get a lot of new followers. Of course this does not mean you need to start writing e mails to Rihanna right after reading this article. First you need to find popular accounts in the same area of interest as the brand you are promoting. This can be some person, web site, magazine etc who promotes the same values, ideas and interests as your page, but it can’t be your direct market rival. Then you need to write them a nice message in which you are going to offer something in return for promoting your page. It can be free product or service of some kind, some good article for them to share, anything that would sound good enough for them to accept your offer. On the other hand if your ex classmate is a rap star or a good-looking girl posting her photos on Instagram to millions of followers, you should definitely use them to promote your page, no matter what kind of audience they target.

Using Software to Manage a Limo Service

In operating a limo service, you really need easy, fast, accurate and reliable software to help you manage every transaction and inquiries of your customers. Limo management software of simply Limo software can be a very helpful tool in managing your Limo business. However, before choosing, purchasing and using the software, you should check if it contains the features and function that you need. Below are some important features of Limo software that you should look for including its functions.

limo software

  • Reservation Management Feature

Limo software should have an easy, fast and wide reservation management feature for your customers and for you to conveniently manage your Limo business to sell and execute more rides. This feature is important in providing customers an easy and real time reservation access for Limo service.

  • Dispatch Feature

Limo software should have a customizable dispatch feature to assign multiple limo trips and send drivers a group messages at the same time and to monitor real time flights. Real time dispatch and on time arrival of your vehicles is very important thing in keeping the good quality service that you provide.

  • Customers and Account Management Feature

Limo software should have a secured customers and account management feature to keep the preference and details of your customers at your fingertips and to make sure your business provides accurate records of every transaction.

  • Billing and Driver Payroll Feature

Limo software should have a well manage and transparent billing and driver payroll feature to manage every customers invoice, credit card payment process, and monitor payroll disbursements. This is important to keep tract and records every customer payments and other transaction in your business.

  • Accounting and Reporting Feature

Limo software should have an accurate accounting and reporting feature to handle well your business basic accounting and other important reports. It should have a business analytic and accounting tool and advance functionality in reporting.

  • Software Data Recovery and Sync Feature

Limo software should have a software data recovery tools in case of data loss or corrupt and to recover it as it is. Sync feature is also important in case the software or the device encounters a problem and in synchronizing the important data to another device or storage online or offline.

  • Customers Service Feature

Limo software should have a customer’s service feature to meet the needs and other inquiries of every customer and as part of maintaining and improving your business quality service.

  • Online Support Feature

Limo software should have online support feature where the software developer provides regular updates about the limo software that you are using. Updates will let you know if the Limo software that you are using still up to date or you need to upgrade for better features.

Providing a good Limo service to your valued customers anytime and anywhere needs a complete and comprehensive Limo software partner to help you managing the business. These features and tools will work as you want them to if you know how to use them properly. Look for this important features and tools and upgrade now your limo software.